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Ahad, 25 Oktober 2009

Numbering in strata

2.2.1.     Numbering of Blocks and Provisional Blocks

  1. Each of blocks in strata scheme must be numbered in order with coefficient letter 'M' (number as M1, M2, M3 and so on).
  2. While, each of provisional block must be numbered in order with coefficient letter 'P' (number as P1, P2, P3 and so on).


 

2.2.2    Number of Floors

  1. Floors on ground
    1. Each of floors in a building that located on the ground level must be numbered in order beginning from the lowest level (ground floor) to the top level. (number as 1, 2, 3, and so on). The floor the exactly located on ground is start as level 1. There is no G level/floor in strata scheme.
    2. The lowest level (floor that exactly on the ground) is determined from the approved building plan.
    3. In case, in the approved building plan has the main stated the floor that numbered as level 1.
  2. Underground Floors;
    1. All the underground floors are numbering in order with coefficient letter 'B' that beginning with the floor that located under level 1 to the lowest (Number as B1, B2, B3 and so on).
  3. Mezzanine Floors;
    1. Mezzanine floors are actually the floor that the level of floors is located unlikely compared to the others floors.
    2. Each of mezzanine floors is numbering with coefficient letter 'N' (Number as N1, N2, N3 and so on).

2.2.3    Numbering of Parcels

  1. There is only a series should be giving in numbering parcel in each strata scheme.
  2. The number that already used also could not being used again to the other accessory parcel.
  3. The accessory parcel is numbering with coefficient letter 'A' (Number as A1, A2, A3 and so on).
  4. The numbering of accessory parcel have to be in order where :
    1. It started to number with the accessory parcel that located outside of building and followed to the other accessory parcel to the top floor.

The Concept in strata

Concept that used in strata is:

  1. To give titles unit or parcels in a building
  2. Parcels are owned by individuals
  3. The rest properly (land and common properties) are jointly owned by parcel proprietors

The prerequisites for Subdivision of building are ;

  1. Minimum 2 storey     – there must be at least one building of 2 storey or mre. If there is other building besides that building, these may be subdivision too. However, any building having only one storey in the same lot shall also be capable of being subdivided into parcel (Amended Act A951/1996)
  2. Land must be alienated land – the land on which the building stands. It is held under a qualified title of the entire parcels proprietor; it must not be a state land and reserve land. As long as the title of the land is not qualified, the approval to the strata will not be approved.

Introduction Of Strata Title Survey

Under The Strata Act (STA) 1985, subdivision of building means the issue of separate titles which are called strata titles for each of the parcel (unit) in the building which has two ore storey. When the building is subdivided, title to the land on which the building stands is retained but it ill registered under a body called the Management Corporation (MC) that excited automatically as soon as the strata titles to the parcels are registered. The C consists of all the purchases/body that is registered as owners of the strata titles of the parcels. When the strata titles are registered, all the titles are in the name of the proprietor/body that was last registered as owner of the land.

    When it formed, the MC takes over from the owner of the land the responsibility regarding the land and the building apart from the parcels which have been registered. This means that the MC will be responsible for payment of the land, insurance to the building and to keep in good condition the facilities available in and around the building. STA 1985 come into force in 1.6.1985 to replace sec. 151-157 of NLC 1965. It is also to facilitate the subdivision of building into parcels and disposition of titles. All the law regulated to Strata Title is amended in Act a753 (1990) including new elements and in Act A951 (1.8.1996) also including the new elements

Single-ended Trigonometrical Heighting

  • Single-ended trigonometrical heighting is a method of observation which taken from one end of the line only.
  • The curvature of the earth and the refraction of the light by atmosphere are taken.


 

    B

    
 


 


 


 

     A

Diagram 1

  • The diagram above shows that the Total Station is set up at point A and a prism is placed at point B.
  • The vertical angle and slope distance is measured from A to B only.


     


 

Trigonometrical heighting

Trigonometrical heighting is a process in geodetic surveying to determine the height of a point from mean sea level. This practical involves finding the vertical angle and slope distance of a line. It can be measured by using the total station. In geodetic surveying, there are three methods that can be used to determine height of a point.The methods are Single-ended trigonometrical heighting, Reciprocal trigonometrical heighting, and Simultaneous reciprocal trigonometrical heighting. All these three methods have their advantages and disadvantages. In our practical, we decided to use single-ended trigonometrical heighting. In this practical, we use single-ended trigonometrical heighting. In our triangulation practical, we have established four points on the ground. We also used the same point to carry out the trigonometrical heighting practical. We have been ordered to carry out this practical on the same site that we use in the triangulation & trilateration work. We need to choose a suitable method to carry out this trigonometrical heighting.

Trigonometrical heighting

Trigonometrical heighting is a process in geodetic surveying to determine the height of a point from mean sea level. This practical involves finding the vertical angle and slope distance of a line. It can be measured by using the total station. In geodetic surveying, there are three methods that can be used to determine height of a point.The methods are Single-ended trigonometrical heighting, Reciprocal trigonometrical heighting, and Simultaneous reciprocal trigonometrical heighting. All these three methods have their advantages and disadvantages. In our practical, we decided to use single-ended trigonometrical heighting. In this practical, we use single-ended trigonometrical heighting. In our triangulation practical, we have established four points on the ground. We also used the same point to carry out the trigonometrical heighting practical. We have been ordered to carry out this practical on the same site that we use in the triangulation & trilateration work. We need to choose a suitable method to carry out this trigonometrical heighting.

Ahad, 18 Oktober 2009

Trilateration in geodetic control

  1. Trilateration Theory

  • According to the definition, trilateration is the process of determining the position (coordinate) of a point by measure the distance only.
  • To determine the position of point by using trilateration, there are 3 main factors which needed to ensure the coordinate of the unknown point can be known. The 3 main factors are:
    • The distance for every line.
    • The coordinate of a known point.
    • The azimuth of a line.
  • By using the sine formula, the coordinate of the unknown point can calculated.
  • For example:


 


 

    
 


 


 

Explanation:

  1. By referring to the diagram above, point A is a known point which the coordinate is obtained by using GPS observation.
  2. The distance from point A to point B, point A to point C and point B to point C are measured by using total station.
  3. By making the solar observation for any line in the traverse, we can have the azimuth of the line.
  4. For example, azimuth A to B is known and the distance of a and b are also known.
  5. By using the cosine formula, we can calculate an angle of station A.
  6. The cosine formula :

    a2 = b2 + c2 – 2bc cos A

     A = cos-1
(a2 - b2 - c2 )

     -2bc    

  1. When the angle A is known, then the bearing from A – C can be calculated.
  2. Thus, the coordinate of point C can be determined by applying the latitude and departure.


 


 


 

Triangulation in geodetic control network

  1. Triangulation Theory


Triangulation can be defined as process of determining the position of a point on the ground by measuring angles to it from known point at either end of a fixed baseline rather than measuring distance to the point directly.Triangulation can also refer to the accurate surveying of systems of very large triangles, called triangulation network. Triangulation can be used to find the coordinates and sometimes distance from the shore to the ship. The observer at A measures the angle
α between the shore and the ship, and the observer at B does likewise for β . If the length l or the coordinates of A and B are known, then the law of sines can be applied to find the coordinates of the ship at C and the distance d.



 


 


 


 


 

  1. The coordinates and distance to a point can be found by calculating the length of one side of a triangle, given measurements of angles and sides of the triangle formed by that point and two other known reference points.
  2. Alternatively, the distance RC can be calculated by using the law of sines to calculate the lengths of the sides of the triangle.
  3. The distance AB is known, so we can write the lengths of the other two sides as RC can now be calculated using either the sine of the angle α, or the sine of the angle β:
  4. We know that γ = 180 − α − β, since the sum of the three angles in any triangle is known to be 180 degrees; and since sin(θ) = sin(180 - θ), we can therefore write sin(γ)=sin(α+β), to give the final formula.
  5. This formula can be shown to be equivalent to the result from the previous calculation by using the trigonometric identity sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + cos α sin β.
    1. Tolerance

To ensure that the data taken are accurate, some limitation has been introduced:

  1. E1 ≤ 1o20"
  2. E2 ≤ 40"
  3. E3 ≤ 40"
    1. Equal Shift Adjustment


 

  1. Is intended to obtain the correct value which is individually satisfying the conditions of angles and sides and distribute them equally to the angles (before proceeds to the sides and coordinate computations).
  2. Satisfy the figure equation, side equation, station equation (if only).
  3. Using angle equation and side equation to know the required condition for brace quadrilateral triangulation.


 

Angle equation

n1 = m – n +1

where,

n = the number of station

m = the number of sides


 

The brace quadrilateral triangulation has 4 stations and 6 sides. Therefore;

n1 = m – n +1

n1 = 6 – 4 +1

n1 = 3


 


 

The brace quadrilateral triangulation has 3 angle conditions.

3 angle conditions of the brace quadrilateral triangulation

  1. Angle 1 + angle 2 + angle 3 + angle 4 + …….+ angle 8 = 360o.
  2. (angle 5 + angle 6) = (angle 1 + angle 2)
  3. (angle 7 + angle 8) = (angle 3 + angle 4)


 

Side equation

n2 = m – 2n +3

where,

n
= the number of station

m = the number of sides


 

n2 = 6 – 2(4) +3

n2 = 1


 

Therefore, the brace quadrilateral triangulation has 1 side conditions.


 

1 side conditions of the brace quadrilateral triangulation


 


 

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