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Ahad, 25 Oktober 2009

Numbering in strata

2.2.1.     Numbering of Blocks and Provisional Blocks

  1. Each of blocks in strata scheme must be numbered in order with coefficient letter 'M' (number as M1, M2, M3 and so on).
  2. While, each of provisional block must be numbered in order with coefficient letter 'P' (number as P1, P2, P3 and so on).


 

2.2.2    Number of Floors

  1. Floors on ground
    1. Each of floors in a building that located on the ground level must be numbered in order beginning from the lowest level (ground floor) to the top level. (number as 1, 2, 3, and so on). The floor the exactly located on ground is start as level 1. There is no G level/floor in strata scheme.
    2. The lowest level (floor that exactly on the ground) is determined from the approved building plan.
    3. In case, in the approved building plan has the main stated the floor that numbered as level 1.
  2. Underground Floors;
    1. All the underground floors are numbering in order with coefficient letter 'B' that beginning with the floor that located under level 1 to the lowest (Number as B1, B2, B3 and so on).
  3. Mezzanine Floors;
    1. Mezzanine floors are actually the floor that the level of floors is located unlikely compared to the others floors.
    2. Each of mezzanine floors is numbering with coefficient letter 'N' (Number as N1, N2, N3 and so on).

2.2.3    Numbering of Parcels

  1. There is only a series should be giving in numbering parcel in each strata scheme.
  2. The number that already used also could not being used again to the other accessory parcel.
  3. The accessory parcel is numbering with coefficient letter 'A' (Number as A1, A2, A3 and so on).
  4. The numbering of accessory parcel have to be in order where :
    1. It started to number with the accessory parcel that located outside of building and followed to the other accessory parcel to the top floor.

The Concept in strata

Concept that used in strata is:

  1. To give titles unit or parcels in a building
  2. Parcels are owned by individuals
  3. The rest properly (land and common properties) are jointly owned by parcel proprietors

The prerequisites for Subdivision of building are ;

  1. Minimum 2 storey     – there must be at least one building of 2 storey or mre. If there is other building besides that building, these may be subdivision too. However, any building having only one storey in the same lot shall also be capable of being subdivided into parcel (Amended Act A951/1996)
  2. Land must be alienated land – the land on which the building stands. It is held under a qualified title of the entire parcels proprietor; it must not be a state land and reserve land. As long as the title of the land is not qualified, the approval to the strata will not be approved.

Introduction Of Strata Title Survey

Under The Strata Act (STA) 1985, subdivision of building means the issue of separate titles which are called strata titles for each of the parcel (unit) in the building which has two ore storey. When the building is subdivided, title to the land on which the building stands is retained but it ill registered under a body called the Management Corporation (MC) that excited automatically as soon as the strata titles to the parcels are registered. The C consists of all the purchases/body that is registered as owners of the strata titles of the parcels. When the strata titles are registered, all the titles are in the name of the proprietor/body that was last registered as owner of the land.

    When it formed, the MC takes over from the owner of the land the responsibility regarding the land and the building apart from the parcels which have been registered. This means that the MC will be responsible for payment of the land, insurance to the building and to keep in good condition the facilities available in and around the building. STA 1985 come into force in 1.6.1985 to replace sec. 151-157 of NLC 1965. It is also to facilitate the subdivision of building into parcels and disposition of titles. All the law regulated to Strata Title is amended in Act a753 (1990) including new elements and in Act A951 (1.8.1996) also including the new elements

Single-ended Trigonometrical Heighting

  • Single-ended trigonometrical heighting is a method of observation which taken from one end of the line only.
  • The curvature of the earth and the refraction of the light by atmosphere are taken.


 

    B

    
 


 


 


 

     A

Diagram 1

  • The diagram above shows that the Total Station is set up at point A and a prism is placed at point B.
  • The vertical angle and slope distance is measured from A to B only.


     


 

Trigonometrical heighting

Trigonometrical heighting is a process in geodetic surveying to determine the height of a point from mean sea level. This practical involves finding the vertical angle and slope distance of a line. It can be measured by using the total station. In geodetic surveying, there are three methods that can be used to determine height of a point.The methods are Single-ended trigonometrical heighting, Reciprocal trigonometrical heighting, and Simultaneous reciprocal trigonometrical heighting. All these three methods have their advantages and disadvantages. In our practical, we decided to use single-ended trigonometrical heighting. In this practical, we use single-ended trigonometrical heighting. In our triangulation practical, we have established four points on the ground. We also used the same point to carry out the trigonometrical heighting practical. We have been ordered to carry out this practical on the same site that we use in the triangulation & trilateration work. We need to choose a suitable method to carry out this trigonometrical heighting.

Trigonometrical heighting

Trigonometrical heighting is a process in geodetic surveying to determine the height of a point from mean sea level. This practical involves finding the vertical angle and slope distance of a line. It can be measured by using the total station. In geodetic surveying, there are three methods that can be used to determine height of a point.The methods are Single-ended trigonometrical heighting, Reciprocal trigonometrical heighting, and Simultaneous reciprocal trigonometrical heighting. All these three methods have their advantages and disadvantages. In our practical, we decided to use single-ended trigonometrical heighting. In this practical, we use single-ended trigonometrical heighting. In our triangulation practical, we have established four points on the ground. We also used the same point to carry out the trigonometrical heighting practical. We have been ordered to carry out this practical on the same site that we use in the triangulation & trilateration work. We need to choose a suitable method to carry out this trigonometrical heighting.

Ahad, 18 Oktober 2009

Trilateration in geodetic control

  1. Trilateration Theory

  • According to the definition, trilateration is the process of determining the position (coordinate) of a point by measure the distance only.
  • To determine the position of point by using trilateration, there are 3 main factors which needed to ensure the coordinate of the unknown point can be known. The 3 main factors are:
    • The distance for every line.
    • The coordinate of a known point.
    • The azimuth of a line.
  • By using the sine formula, the coordinate of the unknown point can calculated.
  • For example:


 


 

    
 


 


 

Explanation:

  1. By referring to the diagram above, point A is a known point which the coordinate is obtained by using GPS observation.
  2. The distance from point A to point B, point A to point C and point B to point C are measured by using total station.
  3. By making the solar observation for any line in the traverse, we can have the azimuth of the line.
  4. For example, azimuth A to B is known and the distance of a and b are also known.
  5. By using the cosine formula, we can calculate an angle of station A.
  6. The cosine formula :

    a2 = b2 + c2 – 2bc cos A

     A = cos-1
(a2 - b2 - c2 )

     -2bc    

  1. When the angle A is known, then the bearing from A – C can be calculated.
  2. Thus, the coordinate of point C can be determined by applying the latitude and departure.


 


 


 

Triangulation in geodetic control network

  1. Triangulation Theory


Triangulation can be defined as process of determining the position of a point on the ground by measuring angles to it from known point at either end of a fixed baseline rather than measuring distance to the point directly.Triangulation can also refer to the accurate surveying of systems of very large triangles, called triangulation network. Triangulation can be used to find the coordinates and sometimes distance from the shore to the ship. The observer at A measures the angle
α between the shore and the ship, and the observer at B does likewise for β . If the length l or the coordinates of A and B are known, then the law of sines can be applied to find the coordinates of the ship at C and the distance d.



 


 


 


 


 

  1. The coordinates and distance to a point can be found by calculating the length of one side of a triangle, given measurements of angles and sides of the triangle formed by that point and two other known reference points.
  2. Alternatively, the distance RC can be calculated by using the law of sines to calculate the lengths of the sides of the triangle.
  3. The distance AB is known, so we can write the lengths of the other two sides as RC can now be calculated using either the sine of the angle α, or the sine of the angle β:
  4. We know that γ = 180 − α − β, since the sum of the three angles in any triangle is known to be 180 degrees; and since sin(θ) = sin(180 - θ), we can therefore write sin(γ)=sin(α+β), to give the final formula.
  5. This formula can be shown to be equivalent to the result from the previous calculation by using the trigonometric identity sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + cos α sin β.
    1. Tolerance

To ensure that the data taken are accurate, some limitation has been introduced:

  1. E1 ≤ 1o20"
  2. E2 ≤ 40"
  3. E3 ≤ 40"
    1. Equal Shift Adjustment


 

  1. Is intended to obtain the correct value which is individually satisfying the conditions of angles and sides and distribute them equally to the angles (before proceeds to the sides and coordinate computations).
  2. Satisfy the figure equation, side equation, station equation (if only).
  3. Using angle equation and side equation to know the required condition for brace quadrilateral triangulation.


 

Angle equation

n1 = m – n +1

where,

n = the number of station

m = the number of sides


 

The brace quadrilateral triangulation has 4 stations and 6 sides. Therefore;

n1 = m – n +1

n1 = 6 – 4 +1

n1 = 3


 


 

The brace quadrilateral triangulation has 3 angle conditions.

3 angle conditions of the brace quadrilateral triangulation

  1. Angle 1 + angle 2 + angle 3 + angle 4 + …….+ angle 8 = 360o.
  2. (angle 5 + angle 6) = (angle 1 + angle 2)
  3. (angle 7 + angle 8) = (angle 3 + angle 4)


 

Side equation

n2 = m – 2n +3

where,

n
= the number of station

m = the number of sides


 

n2 = 6 – 2(4) +3

n2 = 1


 

Therefore, the brace quadrilateral triangulation has 1 side conditions.


 

1 side conditions of the brace quadrilateral triangulation


 


 

Aku putus cinta

Selasa, 17 Mac 2009

GNSS SPECIFICATIONS

1.    Satisfy all military positioning & navigation requirement, such as :

·         Suibtables for all classes of platform : aircraft(jet to helicopter) an others

·         Real-time positioning and velocity determination capability.

·         Positioning result available on a single geodetic datum.

·         Level of real-time accuracy available to non military users to be controllable.

·         Resistant to jamming, and careful attention to others “survivability” issues.

·         Non-detectability of user hence no requirement to transmit signals of any kind.

2.    Satisfy as large range of civilian users as well :

·         Dual system usage (eg GPS) :

a.    Military – precise positioning services (PPS)

b.    Civilian – standard positioning services (SPS)

·         Range of decameter to millimeter accuracy.

·         Information of positioning, velocity and time.

·         All air, sea, and land users

3.    Relatively low user cost as well as ease-of operation :

4.    Unrestricted access by all users.

Global navigation satellites system (GNSS)


Satellite system in GNSS

·         Gps by USA

·         Glonass by Russia

·         Galileo by Europe

·         Compass by china

GNSS characteristics

·         One-way system, satellite transmit signal without knowing the users. Users are passive, hence anybody can use the system freely.

·         GNSS is multi-satellite system, several satellites are visible at all time from the whole globe

·         GNSS support several mode of positioning for many users at one time, ranging from decameters to meters to submeter accuracy.

·         GNSS is also used for precise time determination.

GATED AND GUARDED COMMUNITY IN STRATA

SECTION 6:  BUILDING OR LAND THAT CAN BE DIVIDED IN TO PARCEL.

Section 6 was described about building or land capable of being subdivided into parcel. Sec 6 subsection (1) was describe any building that have two or more storey as one lot under final title (whether registry or Land Officer title)  can being sub divided into parcel each of which is to sub held under a strata title or an accessory parcel.

            Otherwise section (1A) describe any building that having two or more building held as one lot under final title (Registry or Land Office title) can subdivided into Land parcels each of which is to be held under a strata title or as an accessory parcel. But, the building under this section must below 4 storeys.

            The owner can be apply strata for their double storey bungalow and 2 multi storey building that refer in section 6(1) because the owner have in the same lot under final title and under Registry or Land Officer Title.

            Accessory parcel” means any parcel shown in strata plan as an accessory parcel which is used or intended to be used in conjunction with parcel that contained in sec 4. Example of accessory parcel is like parking lot, place to put flower pot, balcony, awning and etc.

SECTION 8 : CIRCUMSTANCES IN WHICH IT IS COMPULSORY FOR A  

PROPRIETOR TO APPLY FOR SUBDIVISION OF A BUILDING OR LAND.

(1)   The proprietor of any alienated land on have a completed building capable of being subdivided or strata title in period under subsection(2). If the proprietor did the deal of the land’s or sale and purchase (S&P) done, so the owner can be apply strata title after S&P.

(2)   The period within which the requirement of subsection(1) shall be complied with is as follows :

a)      In the case of a building completed on a date after the commencement of this subsection that is 23/02/1990.

(i)                 Before the building is complete and S&P done before the building is complete, so date to apply strata title is after the completed building and get the CF(Certificate Fit Occupy).

  The period of time that the owner can apply the strata title is 6 month      from that all construction building was completed.

(ii)               For the building is complete and the sale and purchase (S&P) done after the completed building so date for apply strata title is date after the S&P done.

The period of time that the owner can apply the strata title is 6 month from that the sale and purchase (S&P) done.

       (6)  Further period to apply the strata title.

Ø If the period of time that owner can apply the strata title is 6 month and the owner is fail to apply strata title, then the Director for any further period not exceeding three month.(Extended 3 month for the apply the strata title).

(7)   If  the application is not be apply in the period specified in subsection(2) and in the case     of subsection(6) within the period of such extension granted in respect of a building or land, the original proprietor shall be guilty of an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine of not less than ten thousand ringgit but not more than one hundred thousand ringgit and to a further fine of not less than one hundred ringgit but not more than one thousand ringgit for every day during which the offence continues to be committed.

Ø Basic penalty : RM10,000 – RM100,000

Ø Penalty every day if not apply strata title : RM100 – RM1,000

SECTION 9 : CONDITION FOR APPROVAL

(1)The director can be approve if all condition are satisfied :

a)      Get satisfied from  land surveyor.

                    i.            The situated of building must in 1 lot.

                  ii.            To be make sure awning, gathering hot over the road reserve if over must apply permits use of space.

b)      Must been in two certified.

Ø  Architects register under the Architects Act 1967.

Ø  Professional Engineer registers under the Registration of Engineer Act 1967.

c)      The subdivision would not contravene any restriction the land lot.

d)     The subdivision would not be contrary to the provision of any written law.

e)      No item of land to do strata.

f)       That constant in writing like leases.

g)       Every parcel must have share units.

·         If there is bad happens for example burning the owner can apply the insurance and the insurance will get by following the shyer.

·         The more shyer unit the more owner will get the claim.

h)      That each of parcel must have a road access, can’t share with another.

i)        Must stay more 21 years after that can apply strata.

j)        The building no subject to any charge or lien.

k)      If his land is qualified title, he must get the Certified Plan and compile the CP with his application.

l)        Must get the certified from Local Authority.

SECTION 10. APPLICATION FOR SUB DIVISION OF BUILDING OR LAND

 (1) The application for approval  of the Director for strata needs two form:

·         Form 1A

                  Subdivision of land under subsection 6(1A)

o   In this case the bungalow use this form because the owner want to subdivide in to land parcel but it also use Form 1 because Form 1is subdivision of  buildings or buildings and land

·         Form  1

                 Subdivision of buildings or buildings and land

o   In this case the condominium use this form because the owner want to subdivide and get strata title for one building of condominium.

                       

There a few things that the owner should follow for the application:

a)      pay any fee

aa)   submit the triplicate(3) copy  of building plans approved by the planning authority

b)      one strata plan that include:

o   location plan

o   storey plan

o   delineation plan

ü  if the delineation plan is not include, that is just for subdivision of land only, therefore the application will not accepted.

v  all the plans above must be approved by land surveyors as follows:

                                                  i.            Land surveyors must ensure that all the plans above same with the original plan.If not same, land surveyor must create a building plan and approved by the Architect. The building plan named As tribute Plan must be sent with the Strata Plan.

                                                ii.            In a storey plan, the boundaries of the parcels follow features of permanent construction appearing in the building.

        c) a certificates of a land surveyor that confirmed buildings are in a lot and certificates     from Professional Architect and  Professional Engineer that confirmed the plans are following original plan buildings.

       caa) any permit and if there is permit in use space, it should be include.

cb) if the title is a qualified title, submit it with there copy of certified plan that been approved by Director of Survey

d) the written consents to the making of the application of every person who at the time of the application is entitled to the benefit of:

o a charge of the land

o a lease of the whole or any part thereof

o a charge of such a lease

o a lien over the land or any such lease.

       e) the issue document of title of the lot.

 (2) Every location shall:

a)      Specify the number of lot, the title number of the land and the area of lot.

b)      delineate the boundaries and boundary marks of the lot

o   show all the position of buildings

o   show the part of building that want to subdivided

o   the case of an application for subdivision of land into land parcels, delineate the boundaries and boundary marks of the lot and the parcels showing the position of all the buildings

 (3) Every storey shall:

a)      Specify the number of lot, the title number of the land and the building and numbered storey

b)      Each proposed parcel no needs a bearing but only a distance.

c)      show the parcel with the Form 1

d)     specify the approximate floor area of each parcel

e)      Distinguish such parts as are not to include in any of parcels but are to become part of the common property for example the corridor that not included in parcel but want to become part of common property.

 (3A) Delineation plan shall:

a)      Specify the number of lot, the title number of the land and the parcel that connection to the plan

b)      Each proposed parcel need a bearing and  a distance

c)      Show every parcel by number in Form 1

d)     Specify the area of lot

e)      distinguish such parts as are not to included in any of parcels but are to become part of the common property.

(6A)     For example, if the strata plan was missing, an architect must redraw it and shall be accompanied:

(a)    Three copies of building plan ( certified by Architect or by a land surveyor)  as having been drawn according to the actual features of the building and as truly representing those features; and

(b)   The local planning authority is nevertheless satisfied that the building as so represented satisfies planning requirements.

SECTION 43: DUTIES AND POWERS OF MANGEMENT COOPERATION

  • The overall duties of management cooperation are to supervise gated and guarded.
  • For example if the lamp of corridor has been broken, the drainage is not proper therefore the management cooperation will repair properties by following their own method.
  • The members of management cooperation are from
  • The members of management cooperation are from the residents in that location in gated and guarded.

 

 

 

 

 

Selasa, 24 Februari 2009

"I LOST MY BESTFRIENDS"




At the 22 February 2009, I lost one of my friends. She is a good person. Always study hard and dedicated in all things. She was born in 26 May 1989 and leaves this life at 22 February 2009. Three month before she celebrate the next birthday at 26 May 2009 this year. Her name is “NUR HAFIZA BIN ZAFARULLAH”.
Same batch with me at uitm arau. Also same class. She always smile although she has a problem. She never show the problem. We just left one semester in this uitm. Why this thing happen to him?. It very fast. Duly, she must graduate together with me and another friends. Unfortunately, god really love him. She go first. What about my luck? I still don’t know. Hopely her next journey becomes easier. As a friend, I just can help to pray and support her family. It not to easy to forget you NUR HAFIZA. You are the great PERSON…..









see "SHE ALWAYS SMILE"
"ALWAYS MAKE ME LAUGHT"
BUT EVERYTHING ONLY LEFT THE MEMORIES




"TODAY I KNOW YOU MORE THAN YESTERDAY"
'BUT NOT AS MUCH AS TOMORROW'







"YOU ARE A GREAT PERSON"
AL-FATIHAH TO :
ALLAHYARHAMAH NUR HAFIZA BIN ZAFARULLAH

Ahad, 15 Februari 2009

State cassini System in Malaysia

State cassini System in Malaysia(part 1).

= the cassini projection is classified as cylindrical, tangent, transverse, uquidistant and semi geometric.

= cassini soldner is used for cadastral surveys and is the basic for the standard cadastral sheets in each states (northing,easting).

= there are nine (9) state cassini-coordinate systems in peninsular Malaysia with their respective origins.

States cassini system origin

States

Station Name

Johor

Gunung lumut

Negeri Sembilan & Malacca

GunHill

Pahang

Gunung Senyum

Selangor

Bukit Asa

Terengganu

Gunung gajah

Pulau Pinang &Seberang Perai

Fort Cornwills

Kedah & Perlis

Gunung Perak

Perak

Gunung Hijau Larut

kelantan

Bukit Panau



Geodesy???

What is that?

Refer to Helmert 1880

=is the science of the measurement and mapping of the earth’s surface.

=surface of the earth is shaped by the earth’s gravity and the most of geodetic observation refer to earth’s gravity.

Refer to commited of geodesy

= “is the discipline that deals with the measurement & representation of the earth including its gravity field in a three dimensional time varying space”.

Jumaat, 6 Februari 2009

Sextant


Last hidro survey practical, i had learn about one instrument in hidrographic survey.That we call sextant. The main funtion is to get position on the sea.Sextant is a navigational instrument used to measure the angle of elevation of celestial bodies, usually the sun or moon, in order to determine one's location and direction.Generally, sextant can be used to measure the angle between any two objects.It was first developed around 1730 and soon after began to replace the astrolabe as the navigational instrument of choice.Nowadays it still been used as a main backup in case of global positioning system (GPS) fail to operate.

Variable plan in hidrographic survey

- A topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods show both natural and man-made features.
- A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions. Depending on the scale of the chart, it may show depths of water and heights of land (topographic map), natural features of the seabed, details of the coastline, navigational hazards, locations of natural and man-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth's magnetic field, and man-made structures such as harbors, buildings and bridge
- A bathymetric chart is the submerged equivalent of an above-water topographic map. Bathymetric charts are designed to present accurate, measurable description and visual presentation of the submerged terrain.

Sabtu, 10 Januari 2009

Types of aerial photographs


Low Oblique Photograph

This is a photograph taken with the camera inclined about 30° from the vertical (Figure 8-3, and Figure 8-4). It is used to study an area before an attack, to substitute for a reconnaissance, to substitute for a map, or to supplement a map.


A low oblique photograph has the following characteristics:
:It covers a relatively small area.
:The ground area covered is a trapezoid, although the photo is square or rectangular.
:The objects have a more familiar view, comparable to viewing from the top of a high hill or tall building.
:No scale is applicable to the entire photograph, and distance cannot be measured. Parallel lines on the ground are not parallel on this photograph; therefore, direction (azimuth) cannot be measured.
:Relief is discernible but distorted.It does not show the horizon


Types of aerial photographs

Sample of vertical aerial photograph

Types of aerial photographs

Relationship of the vertical aerial photograph with the ground.

DETAIL SURVEY PRINCIPLE

v = Different of Height
HI = Height of Instrument
HT = Height of Target


I. Way to get the height of RL B if RL A is known ;
RL B = RL A + Hi instrument + v – Hi target


II. Way to get the height of RL A if RL B is known ;
RL A = RL B + Hi target – v – Hi instrument



Jumaat, 9 Januari 2009

DETAILS SURVEYING

DEFINITION OF DETAIL


Detail survey is actually to get the position and height of points on the earth surface. Besides, it can describe the actual features either natural or man-made available on a surveyed area onto a map or plan. Details surveying and tachometry are both shared the same principle. Data that is collected in details survey are produced in three dimensional (x, y, and z). This survey is doing to get the vertical and horizontal controls. x and y value are gathered from the controlled traverse which is established in the beginning of survey work. Before pick up any detail surveying field work, firstly is to prepare a set of specifications which set out the aims of the survey, the accuracy required, the amount and type of detail that is to be located and the intensity of any spot levels that are to be taken. Details surveying prepared involves considering the purpose of the survey, its accuracy requirements and its end product and choosing suitable equipment, techniques and drawing media that will ensure that the specifications are achieved.

Detail normally picked up from the control network (traverse) by total station with internal memory. Specific codes used to represent the details for ease. On maps and plans symbols can be used to represent detail. There is no universally agreed range of symbols for use in map and plan production. Booking for detail survey is still required though the readings have been recorded in the total station memory for checking purpose.

There are four categories of detail:

: Hard Details – the constructed features such as road, buildings and drainage
system.

: Soft Details – the natural features such as river banks, tree and
Vegetation.

: Overhead Details – the features that located on the ground such as electric
power lines and telephone lines.

: Underground Details – the features that located below of the ground such
as water pipes and sewer runs.



In this hydrographic surveying project, detail survey performed on the land where horizontal and vertical control points located. This uses to describe the location of those points from the natural or man-made features available there.Detail can be survey or pickup using total stations. There are information detail must be survey:

Ä Planimetric Information such as Permanent building / structure; Visible boundary feature like walls, fences or hedge; Road, track; Railways feature with arranged access; Water feature; Earth works or other relevant point. The accuracy of planimetric detail shall be such that the plan position of any well define point of detail shall be correct at the plan scale when checked from the nearest permanent control station.



: Height Information shall be provide a spot height throughout the survey area,
Contours and Obstructed ground.

: Detail Symbol are actually to guide drafting man to plot the drawing such as :

: BO : building,
: JO : road,
: OF : fence,
: P : spot level,
: MH : manhole etc.