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Sabtu, 10 Januari 2009

Types of aerial photographs


Low Oblique Photograph

This is a photograph taken with the camera inclined about 30° from the vertical (Figure 8-3, and Figure 8-4). It is used to study an area before an attack, to substitute for a reconnaissance, to substitute for a map, or to supplement a map.


A low oblique photograph has the following characteristics:
:It covers a relatively small area.
:The ground area covered is a trapezoid, although the photo is square or rectangular.
:The objects have a more familiar view, comparable to viewing from the top of a high hill or tall building.
:No scale is applicable to the entire photograph, and distance cannot be measured. Parallel lines on the ground are not parallel on this photograph; therefore, direction (azimuth) cannot be measured.
:Relief is discernible but distorted.It does not show the horizon


Types of aerial photographs

Sample of vertical aerial photograph

Types of aerial photographs

Relationship of the vertical aerial photograph with the ground.

DETAIL SURVEY PRINCIPLE

v = Different of Height
HI = Height of Instrument
HT = Height of Target


I. Way to get the height of RL B if RL A is known ;
RL B = RL A + Hi instrument + v – Hi target


II. Way to get the height of RL A if RL B is known ;
RL A = RL B + Hi target – v – Hi instrument



Jumaat, 9 Januari 2009

DETAILS SURVEYING

DEFINITION OF DETAIL


Detail survey is actually to get the position and height of points on the earth surface. Besides, it can describe the actual features either natural or man-made available on a surveyed area onto a map or plan. Details surveying and tachometry are both shared the same principle. Data that is collected in details survey are produced in three dimensional (x, y, and z). This survey is doing to get the vertical and horizontal controls. x and y value are gathered from the controlled traverse which is established in the beginning of survey work. Before pick up any detail surveying field work, firstly is to prepare a set of specifications which set out the aims of the survey, the accuracy required, the amount and type of detail that is to be located and the intensity of any spot levels that are to be taken. Details surveying prepared involves considering the purpose of the survey, its accuracy requirements and its end product and choosing suitable equipment, techniques and drawing media that will ensure that the specifications are achieved.

Detail normally picked up from the control network (traverse) by total station with internal memory. Specific codes used to represent the details for ease. On maps and plans symbols can be used to represent detail. There is no universally agreed range of symbols for use in map and plan production. Booking for detail survey is still required though the readings have been recorded in the total station memory for checking purpose.

There are four categories of detail:

: Hard Details – the constructed features such as road, buildings and drainage
system.

: Soft Details – the natural features such as river banks, tree and
Vegetation.

: Overhead Details – the features that located on the ground such as electric
power lines and telephone lines.

: Underground Details – the features that located below of the ground such
as water pipes and sewer runs.



In this hydrographic surveying project, detail survey performed on the land where horizontal and vertical control points located. This uses to describe the location of those points from the natural or man-made features available there.Detail can be survey or pickup using total stations. There are information detail must be survey:

Ä Planimetric Information such as Permanent building / structure; Visible boundary feature like walls, fences or hedge; Road, track; Railways feature with arranged access; Water feature; Earth works or other relevant point. The accuracy of planimetric detail shall be such that the plan position of any well define point of detail shall be correct at the plan scale when checked from the nearest permanent control station.



: Height Information shall be provide a spot height throughout the survey area,
Contours and Obstructed ground.

: Detail Symbol are actually to guide drafting man to plot the drawing such as :

: BO : building,
: JO : road,
: OF : fence,
: P : spot level,
: MH : manhole etc.

CONTROL NETWORK

Horizontal Control

Traverse is a method in the field of surveying to establish horizontal control networks. Traverse networks involved placing the survey stations along a line or path of travel, and then using the previously surveyed points as a base for observing the next point. Types of traverse are:

: Link traverse
: Polygonal/Loop traverses
: Open/Free traverse
: Close traverse




Vertical Control

Leveling is one of the methods available in surveying for determining heights of points above (or below) an agreed datum, typically mean sea level. When leveling, it is possible to measure heights within a few millimeters and this order of precision is more than adequate for height measurement in the majority of surveying projects. As well as leveling it is worth noting that heights can also be measured by using total stations, handheld laser distance meters and GPS. The equipment required to carry out leveling is an optical, digital or laser level.To control heights at surveyed area, an established temporary bench mark (TBM) required inside or near the surveyed area. TBM needs to be established by fly level from any bench mark found nearby. In surveying a bench mark is specifically any permanent marker placed by a surveyor with a precisely known vertical elevation (but not necessarily a precisely known horizontal location). These reference points may be chiseled into a wall, or more typically, marked by small brass or aluminum disks, iron pins or bolts that are permanently attached to a stable foundation, such as concrete posts, bridge abutments, buildings, or a specifically constructed concrete block. These markers are then used as starting (control) points by subsequent surveyors and other users to establish the elevation of nearby points.

BATHYMETRIC CHART

Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth, of the third dimension of lake or ocean floors. A bathymetric map or chart usually shows floor relief or terrain as contour lines, and may additionally provide surface navigational information. In short, bathymetric chart is the final product of hydrographic surveying project. 100% of hydrographic survey work normally produced by AutoCAD and a full chart drawing in DWG / DXF format can be prepared in a short time. Most of bathymetric charts are designed to be easy to interpret and include color coded contouring at any required interval, depth data, all available digital topographic data, the client outline proposals and designs etc.

A hydrographic survey may be conducted to support a variety of activities:

: Nautical charting
: Port and harbor maintenance (dredging)
: Coastal engineering (beach erosion and replenishment studies
: Coastal zone management
: Offshore resource development
: Measurement of tide at sea coast for tidal analysis and prediction
: Determination of direction of current
: To help navigation which can guide the ships to the right and save direction using nautical chart
: Determination of international boundaries within countries separated by the ocean
: To be used in the construction progress of structure in the middle of the open sea (e.g.: oil drilling platform.

The one data type common to all hydrographic survey is water depth. Of additional concern to most surveys is the nature of the sea floor material due to its implications for anchoring, dredging, structure construction, pipeline and cable routing and fisheries habitat. Side scan sonar’s are often deployed to facilitate the detection of submerged dangers navigation. Measurements include the tidal, current and wave information of physical oceanographic. Tide or water level measurements are recorded to provide vertical reference for water depth.

INTRODUCTION OF HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

To many, the traditional role of surveyor has been to determine the position of feature in both the natural and environment on or below the surface of the earth and to represent these on a map. Hydrographic survey is a method to survey to find the reduce depth of the sea, the tidal information of the sea to find the maximum level of tide and the minimum level of tide of the survey area, to get the whole idea of existing details and structure which already exist and others.
: Hydrographic is the science which deals with the instrument and description of the physical feature of bodies of water and their littoral land areas.
: Special emphasis usually placed on the element that affect safe navigation and the publication of such information in a suitable form for use in navigation.


A hydrographic surveying are involves the systematic ‘mapping’ of an area of sea and surrounding coastal detail.
:The information collecting during the survey will enable a cartographer to portray a part of the Earth surface on a flat piece of paper and to indicate by sounding, height and depth contour, and spot height, the various irregularities both above and below the sea surface.
: For hydrographic survey all the details use to the mariner must be correctly described and positioned relative to each other end
: Hydrographic survey is the process of measuring the depth and mapping the bottom of lakes, rivers, and ocean.

Rabu, 7 Januari 2009

Vertical Photograph

A vertical photograph is taken with the camera pointed as straight down as possible (Figures 8-1 and 8-2). Allowable tolerance is usually < href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_Okhzdc1T5KE/SWRttGzfhSI/AAAAAAAAAOc/WRssl4AktXM/s1600-h/Picture1.jpg">

Types of aerial photographs

Aerial photography most commonly used by military personnel may be divided into two major types,
= the vertical and
= the oblique
Each type depends upon the attitude of the camera with respect to the earth's surface when the photograph is taken.

Brief History of Photogrammetry

1889: The first German manual of photogrammetry was published by C. Koppe.
1896: Eduard Gaston and Daniel Deville present the first stereoscopical instrument for vectorized mapping.
1897/98: Theodor Scheimpflug invents the double projection
. 1901: Pulfrich creates the first “Stereokomparator” and revolutionates the mapping from stereopairs.
1889: The first German manual of photogrammetry was published by C. Koppe.
1896: Eduard Gaston and Daniel Deville present the first stereoscopical instrument for vectorized mapping.
1897/98: Theodor Scheimpflug invents the double projection
. 1901: Pulfrich creates the first “Stereokomparator” and revolutionates the mapping from stereopairs.
1903: Theodor Scheimpflug invents the „Perspektograph“, an instrument for optical rectification.
1910: The ISP (International Society for Photogrammetry), now ISPRS, was founded by E. Dolezal in Austria.
1911: The Austrian Th. Scheimpflug finds a way to create rectified photographs. He is considered as the initiator of aerial photogrammetry, since he was the first succeeding to apply the photogrammetrical principles to aerial photographs.
1913: The first congress of the ISP was held in Vienna. until 1945: development and improvement of measuring metric cameras and analogue plotters.
1964: First architectural tests with the new stereometric camera-system, which had been invented by Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen and Hans Foramitti, Vienna.
1964: Charte de Venise.
1968: First international Symposium for photogrammetrical applications to historical monuments was held in Paris - Saint Mandé.
1970: Constitution of CIPA (Comité International de la Photogrammétrie Architecturale) as one of the international specialized committees of ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites) in cooperation with ISPRS. The two main activists were Maurice Carbonnell, France, and Hans Foramitti, Austria.
1970ies: The analytical plotters, which were first used by U. Helava in 1957, revolutionate photogrammetry. They allow to apply more complex methods: aerotriangulation, bundle-adjustment, the use of amateur cameras etc.
1980ies: Due to improvements in computer hardware and software, digital photogrammetry is gaining more and more importance.
1996: 83 years after its first conference, the ISPRS comes back to Vienna, the town, where it was founded.

Selasa, 6 Januari 2009

Introduction to geodesy...!!!!

The meaning of Geodesy refer to HELMET 1880 is the science of the measurement and mapping. It related shape,size,ang gravity on the earth.The size is represent the measurement and the shapes refer to representation.From committe of geodesy 1973:Measurement and the same time representation of the earth, including its gravity field in a three dimensional time earing space.

Isnin, 5 Januari 2009

Photogrammetry is making the MAPs

The course objective is to provide an understanding of map making by means of aerial photographs and the study of basic photogrammetric techniques and the underlying theoretical considerations.The course description is to covers basic principles of photogrammetry and simple mapping method. The first topic that uitm student learn are introduction to photogrammetry.Studies about geometry and properties of vertical and near-vertical photography,perspective projection,definition of perspective projection,scale of vertical photograph,scale of titled photograph,tilt displacement,and relief displacement. The second topic is stereoscopy and stereoscope. Studies about binocular vision,base lining and stereoscopic viewing of air photographs,lens stereoscope,and mirror stereoscope. And the last is simple mapping method.studies about perspective,radial line,parallax bar height-parallex,parallex bar,calculating differences in height,errors,and the corrections to crude heights. Hopely, i can follow this subject with excelent. I will discuss all the topic and the sub-topic in the next post.
continue.......

GPS NAVIGATOR

Today I learn something that new for me, “how to use the GPS navigator”. We also call the “mini GPS”. It creates to get the position on the earth. It small and easy to bring anywhere and anytime. How about the accuracy? , because it is not the real GPS just the mini GPS, the accuracy is about 10 meters. It depends on your satellite. More satellite your GPS navigator detect, more accurate your position. And after I learn how to use this GPS, I got the new task/field world. The task is to locate or get the point every café that have in this uitm. I cannot show the picture at this time. Maybe next time. How about processing the data?, It will be continue………..

Ahad, 4 Januari 2009

My diary

Today i want show my diary.This diary recorded all my activities during all the day for this new year.For me,to make our life more perfect i must write the diary.This diary is call the "DIARY ISLAMIAH". I buy this diary at the MPH book store.My favourite book store because this book store sale so many amazing book.To become the surveyor, license surveyor will ask to write the diary for preparation to get the license.All the memories is keeping in one book,that we call "Diary".Just for appreciate my life..............

Sabtu, 3 Januari 2009

Advantages of Torrens System

=Torrens system purportedly offered advantages over the Recording system because it cleared clouded titles thereby promoting land marketability and development.
=Much of the early motivation for Torrens registration in the United States was to promote land development during periods of rapid urbanization, e.g., used extensively after the great Chicago Fire of 1871 when the public land records were destroyed.
=Land registration has been used to clarify boundaries when early property lines became blurred or historical surveying techniques were found to be unreliable.
=The Torrens system protects absentee owners against loss of their land to “squatters” under adverse possession statutes.
=The Torrens system is arguably efficiency enhancing.

continous last post

Jumaat, 2 Januari 2009

New semester,new assigment i got..

Today i attend the law class.My lecturer madam mimi Erniza give me the first assigment for this beginning semester.The assigment is about historial background of land law for strait settlement.I make a research from internet and find some article to solve this problem.
History
The Straits Settlements, the British Crown Colony that existed 1826-1946, included Penang (inc. Province Wellesley), the Dinding Islands (on the Malayan west coast, later returned to Perak), Malacca, Singapore, Labuan Island (off Sabah, now a Malaysian federal territory), Christmas Island, and Cocos/Keeling Islands. Singapore was the capital city of the Straits Settlements.
The Strait of Malacca is actually a waterway which separates Peninsular Malaya from the Island of Sumatra. Also, Malacca was never a colony of Britain in its own rights. When the Straits Settlements were dismantled after the period of BMA (British Military Administration) which was immediately after the Japanese surrendered and returned Malaya and Singapore to the British colonial masters, Singapore became a Colony in its own right and Malacca and Penang were federated together with the remaining 9 Malay states to become the Federation of Malaya (the forerunner of Malaysia). Thomas Koh, 29 October 1996
The British colonial ensigns section of Flaggenbuch 1939 says, "The Governor of the Straits Settlements is also High Commissioner of the Malay States and Brunei".Ivan Sache, 15 January 2000This arrangement came to an end with the Japanese occupation and was not resumed after the Second World War. Straits Settlements was dissolved, Malacca and Penang joined the Malayan Union, Singapore, the Cocos Islands and Christmas Island united to form the colony of Singapore and Labuan joined the colony of North Borneo.